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For example, in the The decay constant has dimensions of reciprocal seconds.In the special case in which parent and daughter atoms are present in equal quantities, the age of the specimen is the half-life of the parent isotope: The first assumption, that the amount of the daughter isotope in the original rock is known, is the weakest assumption.Atomic nuclei of a radioactive element decay spontaneously, producing other elements and isotopes until a stable species is formed.
The decay of uranium to lead was first used to measure long intervals, but the decays of potassium to argon and of rubidium to strontium are more frequently used now.
If, for example, dynamical and atomic time should have a relative secular acceleration, then which one (if either) could be considered uniform?
By postulates, atomic time is the uniform time of electromagnetism.
The formula below is a proper model that admits the possibility that some daughter isotope was present when the rock formed: where D is the amount of daughter isotope present at start.
In order to simplify the formula, scientists generally assume that igneous rock contains no argon when it forms, because the argon, being a noble gas, would escape from the cooling lava. Fresh volcanic rock is routinely found to have argon in it when it first cools.