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Beyond these more recognizable markers, trends seen in recent decades continued. The observed impacts represent a baseline for future observations towards understanding broader scale OA effects. In this study, the authors review events exhibiting evidence for elevated atmospheric CO2, global warming, and ocean acidification over the past ~300 million years of Earth’s history, some with contemporaneous extinction or evolutionary turnover among marine calcifiers. This Strategic Plan presents specific goals to move Federal agencies toward a better understanding of the process of ocean acidification, its effects on marine ecosystems, and the steps that must be taken to minimize harm from ocean acidification.: [From the webpage] "An international, peer-reviewed publication released each summer, the "State of the Climate" is the authoritative annual summary of the global climate published as a supplement to the . Reference: shell dissolution as an indicator of declining habitat suitability owing to ocean acidification in the California Current Ecosystem (2014). Although similarities exist, no past event perfectly parallels future projections in terms of disrupting the balance of ocean carbonate chemistry—a consequence of the unprecedented rapidity of CO2 release currently taking place. Gibbs, Appy Sluijs, Richard Zeebe, Lee Kump, Rowan C. This Strategic Plan will work to implement a comprehensive global and regional ocean acidification observing system that includes the monitoring of physical, chemical, biological, social, and cultural effects.This page presents information about coastal climate issues, including vulnerability assessment, sea level rise, ocean acidification, and planning efforts. Reference: The added complications of climate change: understanding and managing biodiversity and ecosystems (2013). World Meteorological Organization, Press Release No. For the Marshallese, the destructive power of the rising seas is already an inescapable part of daily life. • Background on how the indicator relates to climate change. This report consists of peer-reviewed, publicly available data from a number of government agencies, academic institutions, and other organizations. Link: (full report) (Highlights from report) (Overview) Description: This chapter summarizes how climate is changing, why it is changing, and what is projected for the future. Topics include international symposia, multimedia resources, and publications. Resource type: Report Description: This report contains five chapters.: Led by editors from NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information and published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, the "State of the Climate" reports are the planet's most comprehensive annual physical. Amanda Staudt, Allison K Leidner, Jennifer Howard, Kate A. Changing global trade winds have raised sea levels in the South Pacific about a foot over the past 30 years, faster than elsewhere. coast are over fifty years old, including vital storm and waste water systems. • What’s Happening: Key points about what the indicator shows. EPA also received feedback from scientists, researchers, and communications experts in nongov­ernmental and private sectors. While the focus is on changes in the United States, the need to provide context sometimes requires a broader geographical perspective. Link: Resource type: News article Description: Marine biologist, Gretchen Hofmann, discusses how well mollusks and other shell-building organisms might evolve to live in increasingly acidic ocean conditions. Chapter 1 sets the stage for the assessment and describes its scope.

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Link: An overview of findings is presented in the Ab­stract. Abrupt climate changes can affect natural or human systems, or both. : This chapter gives examples of abrupt climate changes, such as the changing chemistry of the oceans and the melting of ice sheets leading to sea level rise. The basic framework and associated GIS methods can be readily applied to any coastal area.

Human health and safety are at risk from hazards associated with storms, tidal inundation, and changing weather patterns. Ecosystems currently under stress are likely to have more rapid and acute reactions to climate change; it is therefore useful to understand how multiple stresses will interact, especially as the magnitude of climate change increases. Resource type: Press release (November 25, 2015) Description: “The global average surface temperature in 2015 is likely to be the warmest on record and to reach the symbolic and significant milestone of 1° Celsius above the pre-industrial era. Several indicators highlight the important ways in which the observed changes can have implications for human health. Resource type: Report Description: EPA publishes this report to communicate information about the science and impacts of climate change, assess trends in environmental quality, and inform de­cision-making. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far.

In addition, there are impacts from the effects of a changing climate on our coastal and ocean environments. Understanding these interactions could be critically important in the design of climate adaptation strategies, especially because actions taken by other sectors (e.g., energy, agriculture, transportation) to address climate change may create new ecosystem stresses. This is due to a combination of a strong El Niño and human-induced global warming, according to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).” “The years 2011-2015 have been the warmest five-year period on record, with many extreme weather events - especially heatwaves - influenced by climate change, according to a WMO five-year analysis.” Reference: World Meteorological Organization: 2015 likely to be Warmest on Record, 2011-2015 Warmest Five Year Period (2015). Link: https://int/media/content/wmo-2015-likely-be-warmest-record-2011-2015-warmest-five-year-period Resource type: Online article (December 2, 2015) Description: “Most of the 1,000 or so Marshall Islands, spread out over 29 narrow coral atolls in the South Pacific, are less than six feet above sea level — and few are more than a mile wide. Each indicator in this report fills one or two pages, and contains: • One or more graphics depicting changes over time. This report presents 30 indicators to help readers understand observed long-term trends related to the causes and effects of climate change, the significance of these changes, and their possible conse­quences for people, the environment, and society. Reference: Resource type: Web page Description: The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), in cooperation with the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, The Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research, and The Ocean Acidification International Coordination Center has created an ocean acidification website designed to bring information on ocean acidification to scientists, policymakers, and the public.

Chapter 7 provides a regional perspective authored largely by local government climate special­ists. The report has been written for policy-makers, stakeholders, the media and the broader public. Results of these applications are highlighted herein.

Sidebars included in each chapter are intended to provide background information on a significant climate event from 2013, a developing technology, or emerging dataset germane to the chapter’s content. Each section begins with a set of key points that summarizes the main findings. Reference: Authors: Malcolm Spaulding, Annette Grilli, Chris Damon, Teresa Crean, Grover Fugate, Bryan Oakley, Peter Stempel (2016).

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